Geography Now! ISRAEL
Israel officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west. tag Iyong dinggin ito, Oh sangbahayan ni Jacob, natinatawag sa pangalan ng Israel, at nagsilabas sabukal ng Juda; na nagsisumpa sa pangalan ng Panginoon, and they came to pass. tag Aking ipinahayagang mga dating bagay mula nang una; oo, yao'y lumabas sa aking bibig, at aking ipinakilala: biglang ginawa ko. tag iyong dinggin ito, Oh sangbahayan ni Jacob, na tinatawag sa pangalan ng Israel, at nagsilabas sa bukal ng Juda; na nagsisumpa sa pangalan ng Panginoon, and they came about. tag Aking ipinahayag ang mga dating bagay mula nang una; oo, yao'y lumabas sa aking bibig, at aking ipinakilala: biglang ginawa ko.
It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip  to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt see more the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. In the 7th century the Levant was taken from the Byzantine Empire by the Arabs and remained in Muslim control until the First Crusade offollowed by the Ayyubid conquest of The Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt extended its control over the Levant in the 13th century until its defeat by the Ottoman Empire in During the 19th century, national awakening among Jews led to the establishment of the Zionist movement in the diaspora followed by waves of immigration to Ottoman and later British Palestine.
Inthe United Nations adopted a Partition Plan for Palestine recommending the creation of independent Arab and Jewish states and an internationalized Jerusalem. However, peace treaties between Israel and both Egypt and Jordan have been signed. In its Basic LawsIsrael defines itself as a Jewish and democratic state. Israel is a developed country and an OECD member,  with the 34th-largest economy in the world by nominal gross domestic product as of [update].
Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 21 February Ariel Universityin the West Bankis the newest university institution, upgraded from college status, and the first in over thirty years. The Israel Museum in Jerusalem is one of Israel's most important cultural institutions  and houses the Dead Sea Scrolls along with an extensive collection of Judaica and European art. Retrieved 21 March
The country benefits from a highly skilled workforce and is among the most educated countries in the world with one of the highest percentages continue reading its citizens holding a tertiary education degree. Upon independence inthe country formally adopted Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel name "State of Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel Hebrew: The names Land of Israel and Children of Israel have historically been used to refer to the biblical Kingdom of Israel and the entire Jewish people respectively.
Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting years,  until Mosesa great-great grandson of Jacob,  led the Israelites back into Canaan during the " Exodus ". The earliest known archaeological artifact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt dated to the late 13th century BCE.
Fromthe whole region was known as Palestine under British Mandate [fn 4] until the Israeli Declaration of Independence of The oldest evidence of early humans in the territory of modern Israel, dating to 1. The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh homininswho lived in the area that is now northern Israelyears ago. The early history of the territory is unclear.
While it is unclear if there was ever a United Monarchy    there is well accepted archeological evidence referring to "Israel" in the Merneptah Stele which dates to about BCE;    and the Canaanites are archeologically attested in the Middle Bronze Age.
The defeat was also recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles. With successive Persian rulethe autonomous province Yehud Medinata was gradually developing back into urban society, largely dominated by Judeans.
The Greek conquests largely skipped the region without any resistance or interest. Incorporated into Ptolemaic and finally Seleucid empires, the southern Levant was heavily hellenizedbuilding the tensions between Judeans and Greeks.
The conflict erupted in BCE with the Maccabean Revoltwhich succeeded in establishing an independent Hasmonean Kingdom in Judah, which later expanded over much of modern Israel, as the Seleucids gradually lost control in the region. The struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian factions in Judea eventually led to the installation of Herod the Great and consolidation of the Herodian kingdom as a vassal Judean state of Rome.
With the decline of the Herodian dynastyJudea, transformed into a Roman provincebecame the site of a violent struggle of Jews against Greco-Romans, culminating in the Jewish—Roman warsending in wide-scale destruction, expulsions, and genocide. Jewish presence in the region significantly dwindled after the failure of the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in CE. Nevertheless, there was a continuous small Jewish presence and Galilee became its religious center.
Christianity was gradually evolving over Roman paganism, when the area stood under Byzantine rule. Through the 5th and 6th centuries, the dramatic events of the repeated Samaritan revolts reshaped the land, with massive destruction to Byzantine Christian and Samaritan societies and a resulting decrease of the population.
Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel the Persian conquest and the installation of a short-lived Jewish Commonwealth in CE, the Byzantine Empire reconquered the country in In — CE, the region, including Jerusalem, was conquered by the Arabs who had just recently adopted Islam. Control of the region transferred between the Rashidun CaliphsUmayyadsAbbasidsFatimids, Seljuks, Crusadersand Ayyubids throughout the next three centuries.
During the siege of Jerusalem by the First Crusade inthe Jewish inhabitants of the city fought side by side with the Fatimid garrison and the Muslim population who tried in vain to defend the city against the Crusaders.
When the city fell, about 60, people were massacred, including 6, Jews seeking refuge in a synagogue. InMaimonides visited Jerusalem and prayed on the Temple Mountin the "great, holy house.
Work and school holidays are determined by the Jewish holidaysand the official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath. The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the Mamluk Sultan Baybars converted the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron into an exclusive Islamic sanctuary and banned Christians and Jews from entering, which previously would be able to enter it for a fee. Here, Ben-Gurion believed, was a time bomb that had to be defused before it was too late.
In Sultan Saladinfounder of the Ayyubid dynastydefeated the Crusaders in the Battle of Hattin and subsequently captured Jerusalem and almost all of Palestine. In time, Saladin issued a proclamation inviting Jews to return and settle in Jerusalem,  and according to Judah al-Harizithey did: Inarticle source Jewish community in the country was strengthened by the arrival of a group headed by over rabbis from France and England,  among them Rabbi Samson ben Abraham of Sens.
He wrote "If the gentiles wish to make peace, we shall make peace and leave them on clear terms; but as for the land, we shall not leave it in their hands, nor in the hands of any nation, not in any generation.
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Incontrol passed to the Mamluk sultans of Egypt. Jerusalem, although left without the protection of any city walls sincealso saw a flurry of new construction projects centred around the Al-Aqsa Mosque compound on the Temple Mount. In the Mamluk Sultan Baybars converted the Cave of the Patriarchs in Hebron into an exclusive Islamic sanctuary and banned Christians and Jews from entering, which previously would be able to enter it for a fee.
The ban remained in place until Israel took control of the building in InIsaac b. Meir Latif arrived from Italy and counted Jewish families in Jerusalem.
With the help of the Sephardic immigration from Spain, the Jewish population had increased to 10, by the early 16th century. Inthe region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire ; it remained under Turkish rule until the end of the First World Warwhen Britain defeated the Ottoman forces and set up a military administration across the former Ottoman Syria.
In the territory was divided between Britain and France under the mandate systemand the British-administered area which included modern day Israel was named Mandatory Palestine. Since the existence of the earliest Jewish diasporamany Jews have aspired to Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel",  though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute.
The first wave of modern Jewish migration to Ottoman-ruled Palestineknown as the First Aliyahbegan inas Jews fled pogroms in Eastern Europe. The Second Aliyah —14began after the Kishinev pogrom ; some 40, Jews settled in Palestine, although nearly half of them left eventually.
Inthe Jewish Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israela group primarily of Zionist volunteers, assisted in the British conquest of Palestine. This was a major cause of the Arab revolt of —39 during which the British Mandate authorities alongside the Zionist militias of Haganah and Irgun killed 5, Arabs and wounded 14,   resulting in over ten percent of the adult male Palestinian Arab population killed, wounded, imprisoned or exiled.
With countries around the world turning away Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocausta clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized just click for source bring Jews to Palestine.
After World War II, Britain found itself in intense conflict with the Jewish community over Jewish immigration limits, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels. The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule.
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The Yishuv attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine but many were turned away or rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British. On 22 JulyIrgun attacked the British administrative headquarters for Palestine, which was housed in the southern wing  of the King David Hotel in Jerusalem.
It was conceived as a response to Operation Agatha a series of widespread raids, including one on the Jewish Agencyconducted by the British authorities and was the deadliest directed at the British during the Mandate era. On 15 Maythe General Assembly of the newly formed United Nations resolved that the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel on the question of Palestine.
The Jewish Agencywhich was the recognized representative of the Jewish community, accepted the plan. After a year of fighting, a ceasefire was declared and temporary borders, known as the Green Linewere established. The United Nations estimated that more thanPalestinians were expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would become known in Arabic as the Nakba "catastrophe".
Israel was admitted as a member of the United Nations by majority vote on 11 May Immigration to Israel during the late s and early s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Mossad LeAliyah Bet "Institution for Illegal Immigration" .
Both groups facilitated regular immigration logistics like arranging transportation, but the latter also engaged in clandestine operations in countries, particularly in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where the lives of Jews were believed to be in danger and exit from those places was difficult.
Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in The immigrants came for differing reasons. Some held Zionist beliefs or came for the promise of a better life in Israel, while others moved to escape persecution or were expelled. An influx of Holocaust survivors and Jews from Arab and Muslim countries to Israel during the first three years increased the number of Jews fromto 1, Bythe population of Israel rose to two million.
The need to solve the crisis led Ben-Gurion to sign a reparations agreement Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.
During the s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeennearly always against civilians,  mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip,  leading to several Israeli counter-raids.
InGreat Britain and France aimed read more regaining control of the Suez Canalwhich the Egyptians had nationalized.
The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, together with the growing amount of Fedayeen attacks against Israel's southern population, and recent Arab grave and threatening statements, prompted Israel to attack Egypt. SinceArab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the Jordan River continue reading the coastal plain had been trying to divert the headwaters to deprive Israel of water resources, provoking tensions between Israel on the one hand, and Syria and Lebanon on the other.
Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel, and called for its destruction. Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel.
Following the war and the "three nos" resolution of the Arab League, during the — War of Attrition Israel faced attacks from the Egyptians in the Sinai, and from Palestinian groups more info Israelis in Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel occupied territories, in Israel proper, and around the world.
Most important among the various Palestinian and Arab groups was the Palestinian Liberation Organization PLOestablished inwhich initially committed itself to "armed struggle as the only way to liberate the homeland". The Israeli government responded with an assassination campaign against the organizers of the massacre, a bombing and a raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon.
The war ended on 25 October with Israel successfully repelling Egyptian and Syrian forces but having suffered over 2, soldiers killed in source war which collectively took 10—35, lives in about 20 days. Israeli commandos carried out an operation in which out of Israeli hostages were successfully rescued. The Knesset elections marked a major turning point in Israeli political history as Menachem Begin 's Likud party took control from the Labor Party.
The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border. Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground. Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to settle in the occupied West Bank, increasing friction with the Palestinians in that area.
Jerusalem, Capital of Israelpassed inwas believed by some to reaffirm Israel's annexation of Jerusalem by government decree, and reignited international controversy over the status of the city. No Israeli legislation has defined the territory of Israel and no act specifically included East Jerusalem therein.
Several waves of Ethiopian Jews immigrated to Israel since the s, while between andimmigration from the post-Soviet states increased Israel's population by twelve percent.
On 7 Junethe Israeli air force destroyed Iraq's sole Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Israel reactor under construction just outside Baghdadin order to impede Iraq's nuclear weapons program.
An Israeli government inquiry—the Kahan Commission —would later hold Begin, Sharon and several Israeli generals as indirectly responsible for the Sabra and Shatila massacre.
Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon inbut maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon untilfrom where Israeli forces engaged in conflict with Hezbollah. The First Intifadaa Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule,  broke out inwith waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza.
Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organised and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation.
More than a thousand people were killed in the violence.
Despite public outrage, Israel heeded American calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.