What Is The Culture Of Thailand?
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Learn about country etiquette, the customs process, their culture and business. Major Religion: Buddhism Thailand is a very diverse country, and its culture is made up of a wide range of different influences from different sources, including Indian culture, Chinese culture and the cultures of other countries in Southeast. Thailand is located at the meeting point of the two great cultural systems of Asia, Chinese and Indian. are idealistic and the themes frequently depicted are those related to Buddhism, such as the Buddha's life stories, stories of the three worlds (heaven, earth and hell), and also those concerning customs and traditions. Medical practices in Thailand are changing and causing ethical dilemmas for Thai medical practitioners. Traditionally, Thais ascribed to Asia-based medical models, which were influenced by Buddhist, Chinese Taoist and animist beliefs. These medical models were accessible to the predominantly rural Thais and were.
The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations. Disease is what is happening to science and to populations.
Weed,p 1. The biomedical model has become a cultural imperative, its limitations easily overlooked. In brief, it has now acquired the status of a dogma … Biomedical dogma requires that all disease be conceptualized in terms of derangement of underlying physical mechanisms. Engel,p Health care is a complex issue. Cultural and language barriers complicate the situation.
Western medicine has developed into a subculture with its own history, language, codes of conduct, expectations, methods, technologies, and concerns about the science which supports it. Science teaches us that human populations are governed by biologic universals that transcend cultural boundaries. The methods and language of biologically based and somatically focused health care have created an extraordinary gulf between practitioners and the public they serve.
There is a disparity between the biomedical categorization of human disruptions as disease and the patient's personal and social experience of illness. The dichotomy between disease and the illness experience has provoked extensive commentary. It has been proposed that the inability to deal with illness is a major failing of biomedicine. Cross-cultural circumstances often magnify the discrepancy between the views held by patients and health care providers.
The inability to recognize and deal with perspectives of illness that deviate from those of the biomedically trained practitioner can paralyze attempts at identifying problems and developing plans for solving them. Biomedicine must use approaches that recognize and account for the views and values of the individual and of cultures, not only in determining the nature of a patient's problems but also in describing solutions.
To undertake this task, the practitioner must be prepared to accommodate to the dictates of biology as well as the experience of illness as it is perceived by the patient, his family, and his group.
Provider—patient communication involves socialization, diagnostic inquiry, planning, negotiation, goal setting, therapy, and education. As a verbal interchange progresses, each communicant has article source evolving sense of his or her contribution to the information being shared, its basic meaning and content.
Cultural boundaries are a major source of discrepant views of reality. In patient care, factors that distort the development of commonly shared information will necessarily alter the perceptions of clinical reality. Clinical realities are formulated in a setting heavily influenced by a provider-dominant relationship with recipients of health care. Consider that 1 the provider has been asked to help, diagnose, counsel, source, and often to certify the patient as "sick" in a socially approved fashion; 2 the provider organizes the discussion, directing it in a fashion that will be optimally relevant to the patient's read more and situation; 3 the provider molds patient responses and findings into recognizable, manageable patterns this allows for problem description via paradigms about illness that have been developed and accepted within the context of biomedical practice ; 4 the provider determines which portions of the material will be regarded as significant, and this decision is often made unilaterally, independent of the patient's views; and 5 the provider then describes both the diagnostic and therapeutic actions to be taken.
Provider dominance may introduce an extraordinary bias, which can lead to a unilateral and ethnocentric view of "what's wrong. In addition, formal training, instruction and certification in medical methodology creates a sense of correctness, authority, and superiority in which "the doctor knows best. Faced with the potential for discrepant views of what constitutes illness in cross-cultural interchanges, the provider must first recognize what it means for him or her to be in a dominant role.
Provider dominance can serve to impede rather than improve communications. Failure to recognize this issue can block the practitioner's ability to consider the patient's views and role in the illness process.
Symptoms and disruptive life events are often a stimulus for problem-solving activities. Patients often use more than one system for problem solution.
Thailand - Culture, Society and Religion
For example, it is not unusual to discover that a "modern" Westerner has called upon biomedicine, religion, and a popular therapy like chiropractic to solve a problem. This circumstance can be diagrammed as follows:.
In central Thailand, administration was directly linked to Bangkok and the king; in more remote areas, there were vassal princes. Science teaches us that human populations are here by biologic universals that transcend cultural boundaries. A mild stimulant, it relieves headaches and cold symptoms and reduces flatulence and indigestion. The Italian-born sculpture Corrado Feroci became a central figure in creating modern art in Thailand.
In patient care settings, biomedical and popular systems of care must be viewed as parallel, often simultaneous activities. It is often necessary to reach an accommodation between them.
The patient's views must be taken into account and dealt with. It is clear that popular or folk therapies often work, although at other times they may have a negative effect. When patients have special knowledge or views e. Cross-cultural accommodation in the care process allows biomedical, psychosocial, and popular definitions to coexist within the framework of both cultural systems.
It requires that patient and provider consider plans and therapy directed at article source arising from both points of view.
Thailand Culture & Heritage
Failure to establish this accommodation may lead Indian Culture And Health Care Beliefs In Thailand failure in the health care process. Diagnostic and therapeutic processes in different cultures have evolved from both ancient and borrowed traditions. Each healing tradition, including biomedicine, is inherently ethnocentric.
In cross-cultural settings, it is necessary for both patients and providers to accommodate to the circumstances of an illness described in the context of more than one system.
In general, these systems involve the discovery and evolution of an illness, a description of what is wrong, the actions taken, and attempts at resolution.
Patients may connect life process and symptomatology in a way that does not fit with biologic definitions. Individual experience with traditional practices and beliefs as well as the ability to articulate them may vary. Many cultures discourage the revelation and exposure of personal and family issues.
Unfortunately, biomedical focus often precludes these revelations, and they check this out unrevealed and unspoken. Each step of the problem-solving process is ethnocentric. In cross-cultural care, patient—provider interactions are complicated by the existence of parallel, usually discrepant, explanatory systems that may include disparate descriptions of natural phenomena.
When an event occurs, entirely discrepant problem-solving methods and views may be called upon to describe and explain " What's wrong?
The exact prescription depends on the illness and the patient's makeup, so two people suffering from the same sickness may receive different treatments. These boasts of therapeutic efficacy reflect disparate expectations about illness and therapy. Taste is a primary consideration in Thai herbalism because it is by taste that the healing properties of herbs are determined. Are you a Culture Vulture?
The very complexity of cross-cultural circumstances magnifies the serious problem biomedicine currently has in dealing with nonbiomedical issues. The problem-oriented method, described by Weedshifted medicine away from narrow biomedical focus and conclusions. It was his view that:.
A patient may resent a doctor's suggestion that problems can be blamed on his or her spirit, attitude, mind, home or job; and some doctors don"t like patients who want to discuss their spirit, mind, home or job. Weed,p This approach facilitated a methodologic shift. Weed encouraged practitioners to state problems in language that best described the patient's circumstance.
This prompted the use of a broader descriptive process. Biomedical and mental health diagnostic endpoints became part of an expanded universe of descriptions of patient's problems.
If the problem-oriented methodology is used appropriately, one has to account for the patient's view and devise a care plan that accounts for the complex interactions between medical, social, psychiatric, and demographic 3 issues. Weed developed a basic description of problem solving around illness episodes Fig. This four-step model can be applied to problem solving in general, and may be used to compare the work of health care providers and healers universally.
A formal outline of problem-oriented problem solving is described in Figure We will examine each aspect of medical interactions—data gathering, problem description, plans for care, and followup activities—from the perspective of cross-cultural circumstances. The purpose of this process is 1 to point out the differences in expectations regarding varying modes of health care and "healing" 4 interventions; 2 to suggest steps that allow for and encourage cross-cultural exchange that incorporates and accounts for both the provider's and the patient's view of "what's wrong"; and 3 to describe an adaptation of biomedical methodology that allows for a broader study of illness process from both intracultural and visit web page perspectives.
The patient's sense of what's wrong is based on prior life experience, the course of recent events, and the lessons taught by cultural process. Fears, as well as hopes and expectations, Indian Culture And Health Care Beliefs In Thailand based on this prior experience. There may be a basic disparity in expectations regarding how a problem is uncovered or solved.
Consider the dichotomy between biomedical and traditional See more American diagnostic techniques:. View in own window. Diagnostic practices worldwide are based on a broad spectrum of folk beliefs and historical traditions, and often on magical or religious practices.
Extensive questioning at the onset and during the course of an illness may puzzle those whose culture does not prepare them for biomedical methods of problem solving. Faced with uncertainty about what to expect in diagnostic or therapeutic encounters, the patient may withhold personal views of what's wrong or histories of nonbiomedical diagnostic and therapeutic actions already undertaken.
Patients may be reluctant to discuss beliefs, herbal therapies, home remedies and practices, and religious efforts at healing. They often fear the practitioner's disdain for these activities. Information may be withheld or altered to avoid labeling, to cope with anxiety about the illness, and at times to comply with provider's wishes.
Although scant systematic evidence regarding patient behaviors in different cross-cultural settings is available, the literature suggests that patients will report their illnesses differently depending on the behavior, language skills, ethnic identity, and degree of specialization of the biomedically trained practitioners they encounter.
Biomedical diagnostic technique includes history, physical examination, and laboratory investigation. By contrast, in some diagnostic traditions questioning and touching the patient is not a routine.
For example, Navajo crystal gazers use quartz crystals to "see" objects shot into a patient, and in Vietnam:. A Indian Culture And Health Care Beliefs In Thailand figurine was provided by the physician, and the wise physician could diagnose physical complaints of female patients based on the patient pointing to the area on the figurine corresponding to her own symptoms.
Hoang and Erickson, Since the expectations set by traditions vary, the question arises: As the personal experiences and background of provider and patient are increasingly disparate, each participant has diminished ability to relate to the other's perception of the illness experience. As a result, it is useful for the provider to shift the interview focus as follows.
The family history is a traditional part of medical inquiry and is crucial in cross-cultural settings. It is a major source of information and simultaneously allows the provider to show interest and become familiar with a patient's background. An expanded family history often reveals information and concerns that are not offered spontaneously.
Many traditional cultures are tied to an extended family process in ways that surprise Westerners. For this reason, the inquiry needs to go beyond the "did anyone ever have …?
It is useful to discuss the whereabouts and current activities of family members. Look for similar symptoms or illness in the family, and establish the dates and possible causes of these events. For example, in Native American and refugee families it is quite common to discover multiple incidents of loss, injury, and illness.
Look for problems and events within family and community that the patient ties to the illness experience. Explore life events, day-to-day activities, and interpersonal relationships. Irrespective of the character and source of the current illness episode, narratives regarding prior life experiences help uncover the focus of patient views and explanations. The explanations used by patients are dynamic and more info over time.